Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately −162°C (−260°F); maximum transport pressure is set at around 25kPa (4psi).
LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the (volumetric) energy density of LNG is 2.4times greater than that of CNG or 60 percent that of diesel fuel. This makes LNG cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport. LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. It can be used in natural gas vehicles, although it is more common to design vehicles to use compressed natural gas. Its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have hindered widespread commercial use. Despite these drawbacks, on energy basis LNG production is expected to hit 10% of the global crude production by 2020.(see LNG Trade)
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma). A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide). A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer. The interaction of gas particles in the presence of electric and gravitational fields are considered negligible as indicated by the constant velocity vectors in the image. One type of commonly known gas is steam.
The gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states, the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for gases. Bounding the lower end of the temperature scale lie degenerative quantum gases which are gaining increasing attention. High-density atomic gases super cooled to incredibly low temperatures are classified by their statistical behavior as either a Bose gas or a Fermi gas. For a comprehensive listing of these exotic states of matter see list of states of matter.
Gas is a music project of Wolfgang Voigt (born 1961), a Cologne, Germany-based electronic musician. Voigt cites his youthful LSD experiences in the Königsforst, a German forest situated near his hometown of Köln, as the inspiration behind his work under the name Gas. He has claimed that the intention of the project is to "bring the forest to the disco, or vice-versa".
Aliases and projects
Voigt is known for his numerous, nearly inexhaustible list of one-off projects and aliases. Of these, his best known is arguably Gas, a project that saw the marriage of ambient music and 4/4 techno.
Other names under which Voigt has released music include, but are not limited to, All, Auftrieb, Brom, C.K. Decker, Centrifugal Force, Crocker, Dextro NRG, Dieter Gorny, Digital, Dom, Doppel, Filter, Freiland, Fuchsbau, Gelb, Grungerman, Kafkatrax, Love Inc., M:I:5, Mike Ink, Mint, Panthel, Popacid, Riss, RX7, Split Inc., Strass, Studio 1, Tal, Vinyl Countdown, W.V., Wassermann, and X-Lvis.
A small Midwestern town is thrown into chaos when the local oil tycoon (Sterling Hayden) orchestrates a phony oil shortage in order to increase profits. A news reporter (Susan Anspach) tries to uncover the plot, and a radio DJ in a helicopter (Donald Sutherland) reports on the craziness caused by the gasoline shortage.
Offshore (1979) is a novel by Penelope Fitzgerald. It won the Booker Prize for that year. It recalls her time spent on boats on the Thames in Battersea. The novel explores the liminality of people who do not belong to the land or the sea, but are somewhere in between. The epigraph, "che mena il vento, e che batte la pioggia, e che s'incontran con si aspre lingue" ("whom the wind drives, or whom the rain beats, or those who clash with such bitter tongues") comes from Canto XI of Dante's Inferno.
"Offshore", when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the sea, or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field. There are various types of platform used in the development of offshore oil and gas fields, and subsea facilities.
and San DiegoGas & Electric... (SempraLNG) ... But Sempra LNG executive Jim Diemer acknowledged the company is trying to help Mexico resolve its gas oversupply, with VistaPacifico as one option ... gas export market is centered around the Gulf Coast, a longtime hub for offshore drilling, petrochemical plants and other oil and gas infrastructure.
... gas business ... The company’s projects, until recently, included oil and gas exploration and extraction, rig and platform operations, crude oil refining, petrochemical (ethylene, benzene, naphtha, hydrogen) production, and both on- and offshore liquified natural gas (LNG) plants.
The pipeline would link Israel’s huge Leviathan field to Egypt’s liquefied natural gas plants, the countries’ energy ministries said Sunday ... The announcement comes as nations in the eastern Mediterranean ramp up investments in offshore gas fields ... The new pipeline would allow Israel to export more gas to Egypt.
The Israeli and Egyptian energy ministers have agreed to build a pipeline to connect Israel’s offshore Leviathan natural gas field to liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals in northern Egypt, the Israeli minister said on Sunday.
“Customers are increasingly seeking to secure new energy supplies in a timeframe which supports the development of our Scarborough offshore gas resource and the expansion of the Pluto facility with the addition of a second LNG production train ... its global LNG portfolio.
He also stressed the need to promote use of unlimited resources of renewable energy and said the government had received 15 bids for the exploration of new gas reserves ... He said, "Work on offshore drilling is also under consideration which would also enhance our domestic production of oil and gas."